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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

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While the WeChat use of the "post-90s" generation has slightly decreased, from 94.1 percent to 86.6 percent.
Company: BlogHer
今年1至10月份的民间固定资产投资同比增长2.9%,比1至9月份的增速快了0.4个百分点。

4.Venice, Italy
让它具有一定的危险性,因为这也会让你的“华生”兴趣盎然。
Benmosche's abrasive morale-building exercise at AIG will take hold. The U.S. pay czar will give Benmosche leeway on pay. And a continuing rebound in the markets will give AIG a shot at repaying a good chunk of taxpayer money.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

家居企业动向:传统营销褪色 “微营销”兴起

The drama was broadcast during the summer holiday, targeting young audiences who prefer fantasies and romances.
Last year saw a series of disastrous floods hit countries worldwide, including the UK, which in December experienced its wettest month since records began in 1910.
尽管可以下载的课程具有较好前景,但在现实世界,得到官方承认的学历仍然基于课堂教学活动。初创公司采取了这样一种态度:如果他们无法以新的服务交付方式在高校的地盘上击败它们,那就应该与之建立合作伙伴关系。其结果是,他们忙着争取考试委员会核准他们的在线课程,使其可以算作学士或硕士学位资格的一部分。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Justin Bieber rounded out the top five, honoured for his work with Pencils of Promise and his Believe Charity Drive.
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他会在自己的独唱专辑中尝试什么样的歌曲呢:《Sweet Creature》(《可爱的人儿》)和《Ever Since New York》(《自从来到纽约》)是温馨的原声抒情歌曲;而在《Kiwi》(《奇异果》)这首歌中,他大声地炫耀着自己的欢乐;《Two Ghosts》(《两只幽灵》)则是一首为分手而惋惜的歌曲。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • corpor躯体,al-法人的
  • 粤港澳大湾区买房攻略 限购政策知多少
  • 一些最近发表的科学论文说,高空急流中这种持续较长的怪现象,由于全球变暖正在导致北极地区海洋中的冰迅速融化而变得更可能发生,但许多主要的科学家还没有被这种观点说服。
  • 藤制家具标准将在2015年制订完成
  • 南京节后楼市“只出不进” 库存猛降2400套
  • 今年2月的时候,玛蒂参加了J.Mendel2015秋冬高级成衣发布秀(图)
    13. 还有更好的。10月,《洛杉矶时报》报道,平等工作机会委员会正在调查这个行业内的性别歧视现象,美国民权同盟要求各州与联邦机构继自己之后各自进行调查。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 上半年陶瓷业产销两旺 企业全力备战金九银十, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

欧普照明二度冲刺上交所 募集资金12亿元

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

楼市量价齐涨 年内家居卖场销售或持续升温

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • adj. 剧烈的,严重的,严峻的,严厉的,严格的
    《敦刻尔克》是克里斯托佛.诺兰第二部背景设定不在当代(或未来)的电影,这部战争片描绘了在敦刻尔克营救数十万大军的史诗般宏大场面。该片由汤姆.哈迪、马克.里朗斯、肯尼斯.布莱纳,斯里安.墨菲以及哈里.斯泰尔丝出演。想一想《拯救大兵瑞恩》,不过比这更刺激。
  • summ总,加+ary→内容总和→摘要;大纲
    反对:可以把这部电影当作一部演技在线的影片,而不是一部真正伟大的作品吗?
    Anyway, it's nice to see that LeBron has filled into his monster physique nicely in the past nine years.
    乔博部长表示:“今年,无论是在旅游还是在贸易、体育、文化,社会和学术交流方面,中澳两国的关系都将更加紧密,并为进一步合作提供更多机会。”
    It was a rare glimpse into his closely guarded personal life that also put at risk Apple’s brand in less tolerant parts of the world. Mr Cook was driven to take a stand by his experiences growing up in Alabama, where he has talked of seeing discrimination that “literally would make me sick”.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 养老院床位炒到44万元 民办养老机构如何监管?
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 调控加码后的深圳楼市众生相:中介别样推销 商务公寓受冲击

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

雷文斯克罗夫特认为,如果他成为一名管理顾问,他的视野可能会相对狭窄。教学工作也有助于他变得愿意承担风险——这来之不易。“如果你曾站在30名会毫不犹豫地指出你的错误的青少年面前讲课,这种体验可能会让你变得愿意去尝试。”
别让自己工作得太舒服
James Bond Themes 1. "Goldfinger" by Shirley Bassey
Song “Super Shero”(S.H.E.)
有人会认为卡莉·西蒙演唱的《海底城》的主题曲最好听。他们可能有自己的理由,可能是因为这是"邦德电影中最好听的歌曲"。曲调欢快、充满吸引力、浪漫抒情,卡莉西蒙的演唱打动人心。但是这些对詹姆斯·邦德、他的冒险旅程、他的来历甚至他的电影没有任何特殊引导作用。尽管《没人做得更好》被认为是一首好歌,但是由于上述原因它并没能进入榜单前五名。
Some 695 million netizens used mobile phones to access the Internet in 2016, with a growth rate exceeding 10 percent for the third straight year, the report said. Smartphone-based Internet use accounted for 95.1 percent of all Internet users, up from 90.1 percent in 2015.
我知道,这是需要时间的,但是这会使你更加了解自己所做的事。这也会是你到学校学习的原因,对吧?

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • May your New Year be filled with special moment, warmth, peace and happiness, the joy of covered ones near, and wishing you all the joys of Christmas and a year of happiness.愿你的新年充满温馨,祥和,与亲人团聚的快乐,祝乐陶陶,新年乐无限。
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  • Comic skit “You’ve Got Trouble”(Sun Tao, Qin Hailu etc)
    研究人员表示,去年之所以特别引人瞩目,是因为除了1月和4月以外,每个月都会创下新的全球高温记录,或与记录持平。
  • 各地加码楼市调控 一线城市住宅成交量下滑23.5%
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Hua Xu Yin is about a princess who sacrificed her life for the country but later was saved and began her own adventures with another name. It is also a TV series adaptation of an online novel of the same title written by Tang Qi. The series premiered in July 2015, staring Lin Yuan and Zheng Jiaying. However, it did not get as much attention as its rivals. According to the online critics, the lead roles and their costumes were not appealing enough in the adaptation.
    To tackle the problems, the report suggests that e-commerce laws should be developed as soon as possible. It also calls for the establishment of an online credit system to strengthen the discipline of the e-commerce industry.
  • “现在黑客使用流行文化或体育活动中的常见说法来破解网上账户,因为他们知道很多人在使用这些容易记住的词做密码。”
    Who is hosting the 2014 Oscars?
  • 5.Effective decision makers
    The first chart shows the total incidence of banking, currency and debt default crises in emerging markets since the 1970s, set against the nominal federal funds rate. Mr Koepke gives this as evidence that high and rising rates typically precede periods of EM crisis.
  • He was under the impression people clicking on the adverts would earn him money. But instead he was charged every time someone clicked on the link.
    The students were very experienced, commented one graduate. Networking and interaction among everyone involved were key aspects of this programme.
    3. Grow your hair slightly longish, if it isn't naturally wavy (poor you), wear curlers to bed every night.
  • The top 10 Weibo celebrities now have a combined 40 million followers. One of the most famous online figures, Papi Jiang, already signed a contract for video ads worth a staggering $3.4 million.
    'I think South Korea has a very rigorous and narrow definition of beauty because we’re an ethnically homogenous society and everyone looks pretty much the same. It is also related to low self-esteem.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 香港照明业概况:商贸兴起制造内迁 小批量采购成主流 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

2017年“国抽”计划发布 卫生陶瓷种类减少

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

水龙头厂家浅谈:卫浴行业被带紧箍咒

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

涂料企业推陈出新 新型涂料走俏市场

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

河北发放首批港澳台居民居住证

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 新年英文祝福语大全Best wishes for the year to come! 恭贺新禧! Good luck in the year ahead! 祝吉星高照! May you come into a good fortune! 恭喜发财! Live long
  • 有的时候,老板挺糟糕的。但如果你觉得你的老板一直很差劲,占用了你的时间,是的,你该去找一份新的工作了。
  • 家居市场线上高速发展 线下频现撤场

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 选择出国继续学习的学生比例也出现小幅下降,由去年的4.8%下降至3.4%。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 随着二孩生育政策的出台,为了缓解女性的担忧,国家应明确规定禁止歧视女性,包括要求公司有一定比例的女员工以及减税或其他优惠措施,以鼓励雇主有效实施女职工产假延长的规定。
    扎实推进“一带一路”建设。
    [l?un]
  • 这也是精算师高居美国最佳工作榜首的原因之一。这是求职网站CareerCast.com最新调查结果,调查报告于周二发布。生物医学工程师排名第二位,2012年高居榜首的软件工程师如今排名第三。排名垫底的工作包括现役军人、伐木工人和报社记者。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • WardsAuto will present its Top 10 Engines awards on Jan. 15 at a ceremony held in conjunction with the North American International Auto Show in Detroit.
  • 砍价已成为消费文化 单一品牌难以明码实价?
  • The rest of them, he goes over quickly:

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 超200亿资金涌入 智能家居将驶入快车道
  • Household substance abuse
  • 意大利瓷砖行业全面复苏:2016年营业额超54亿欧元,且投资热情高涨
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

北京将会限制“企业购房”?

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • “五星级”养老院初露端倪 新标准明确养老机构空间配置
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 个税法草案公开征求意见,减税“红包”有望10月份落地
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Red ones mean passion and romance, yellow ones speak of friendship, and pink can express your thanks.红玫瑰代表热情和浪漫,黄玫瑰象征友谊,粉玫瑰则表达谢意。If

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

butterfly
We are a group of twelve and thirteen-year-olds from Canada trying to make a difference:Vanessa Suttie, Morgan Geisler, Michelle Quigg and me. We raised all the money ourselves to come six thousand miles to tell you adults you must change your ways. Coming here today, I have no hidden agenda. I am fighting for my future. 我们是一个十三四岁的小群体,我们想改变些什么:Vanessa Suttie, Morgan Geisler, Michelle Quigg和我。我们自己挣钱支持我们来到这里,旅行5000英里只为告诉你们成年人,你们必须改变你们的生活方式。今天我来到这里,我背后没有任何经纪人,我们为我们的未来而战。
我们将尚未生长成型的水果放进模子里。
Season\'s greetings and best wishes for the New Year.
泰国董里岛——董里岛是泰国东南部一个可被雷达侦测到的沉睡之省,游人可以在那里租长尾船,到岛屿之间穿行,还可以去看濒临灭绝的儒艮。
The best bosses understand the art of delegation. My commenter said something along the lines of, “They’ve fired themselves from their previous job,” meaning that they don’t interfere in the day-to-day and minute-to-minute workflow or processes. In essence, learning to delegate instead of micromanage is about trust。
"You're part of the past, but now you're the future," Lana Del Rey sings on Lust for Life's opening track, "Love".
抵达太阳系深处的人类智慧。
以美元计算的话,这一跌幅就更加明显了,上个月出口同比下滑11.2%至1774.8亿美元。这一跌幅不仅超过了去年12月1.4%的跌幅,也超过了下滑1.8%的预期。这是自去年3月下滑15%以来的最大跌幅。
6.Jack Shephard Almost Died in the First Episode

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

定制家具难称心 应细签合同

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • the truly embarrassing press conference from Vlade Divac, the leaks of Vivek Ranadive's lust for Buddy Hield, and the failure to sell off a host of spare veteran roster parts that theoretically could have been turned into picks.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Even though we are apart, you are in my heart this season.千山万水,隔不断我在佳节对你的思念。
  • 卫浴洁具行业的发展趋势与机会
  • The end of November is here. As I wrote Monday, recent history suggests nine teams have pretty much already been knocked out of playoff contention. Yet, none of them are straight-up tanking.
  • 经济开局良好!北京一季度GDP同比增长6.4%
  • 跳水游泳花样游泳篮球小轮车曲棍球田径

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 拥抱互联网+ 传统陶瓷企业“智”造升级
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • In truth, slower growth of about 8 per cent could be better for China and for the world. More environmentally sustainable and equitable outcomes would ease popular concerns and higher consumption would ease tensions over global trade.
  • “她确实带着假发和皇冠,穿着美美的裙子,但是我不会给她用喷雾晒黑剂或者给她涂上满脸的化妆品——我会等到她五岁的时候再给她用这些。”

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

儿童家纺产品 品牌少价格高

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